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What does subsidence mean?

The ground beneath us is constantly shifting.

Subsidence is the propensity for upward, lateral, or downward movement, which can result in structures moving, sinking in one area or across the entire foundation footprint. During construction, ground instability can cause soil slippage which often requires stabilisation prior to conducting additional excavation for building foundations or swimming pools or building retaining walls. Once a building is already in place, ground instability can cause movement of the building or structure, resulting in internal or external wall cracks, inability to open and close windows and doors, sunken floors, and more.

Equally, weak ground cannot adequately support the weight of structures, thereby causing subsidence. Uneven floors, fractured floor tiles and wall cracks are all strong indicators of weak ground beneath the structure.

If a building or structure has subsided due to ground instability or weak ground, it is important to fix it right away, or risk further damage and potential hazards.

Weak Ground - Civil

Civil and Infrastructure

Mainmark has successfully raised, re-levelled, and re-supported sunken roads and highways, bridge approach slabs, bridge abutments, culvert areas, concrete slabs, and parking areas at numerous airports, seaports, railways, and many other civil works.

Weak Ground - Commercial

Commercial and Industrial

Mainmark can stabilise and strengthen the ground under structures of any size, including commercial and industrial structures. The processes are time- and cost-effective, making them sought after around the world.

Weak Ground - Heritage


Mainmark can stabilise the ground under heritage buildings that are susceptible to movement to preserve the structure, then bring the building back to level, generally closing up internal and external wall cracks and resolving structural damage.


Weak Ground - Mining

Mining and Resources

Mainmark resolves ground instability and weak ground in mining operations that are caused by digging, blasting and high traffic usage. This will address occupational health and safety challenges.

Ground instability and weak ground under homes

Mainmark offers the most advanced technology to stabilise the ground beneath your home. Using resin injection ground stabilisation, we improve ground compaction. We can then raise and re-level sunken buildings, then add support to the ground for soil stabilisation to strengthen the foundation and stop the soil underneath and around the buildings slipping or moving. We have successfully raised, re-levelled, and re-supported thousands of homes around the world.

We visit your home, assess the damage, and discover the cause. Our experienced engineers and technicians establish the approach needed, creating a plan specific to the needs of your house.

As the weak ground under houses is strengthened, and sunken floors are brought back to level, any internal and external wall cracks generally close up too. Most importantly, structural damage is resolved and, with a stable foundation, the future of the house is sound.

Our deep resin injection ground stabilisation and foundation repair solutions are the modern answer to more traditional methods of underpinning. Compared to concrete underpinning, it’s like keyhole surgery, as the injection holes are often as small as the size of a five cent coin. Our alternatives to underpinning are not just for concrete floors. We can underpin, raise and re-level strip footings, raft slabs, and ‘waffle-pod’ slabs too.  We also have solutions for soil stabilisation and ground compaction under driveways and paths.

Deep-lift using our Teretek engineered resin solution is a method used for strengthening foundation ground. The resins and hardeners mix together in the ground, and expand to compact the adjacent soils and increase their load-bearing capacity.

Another of our technologies for improving ground compaction and stability is Permeation Grouting, which can create ground cohesion before soil excavation takes place, making it a good option for soil stabilisation for swimming pools, retaining walls etc. It involves filling in cracks, joints, and other small defects in rock, sandy coastal, and other non-cohesive soils or other porous ground with a cement-based grout. It can stabilise the ground at depths of up to 60 metres.

What causes subsidence?

Subsidence can happen naturally as part of the earth’s constantly shifting crust. It can be exacerbated by issues such as soil compaction, loss of ground moisture, excessive excavation, or erosion. Ground instability causes subsidence and, often, the damage can seem to be reversed as the ground shifts back and forth over time.

However, without soil stabilisation, damage to buildings, such as wall cracks, are prone to reappear. In infrastructure or at large industrial sites, embankment slippage can be an issue, leading to further erosion and damage.

Subsidence should be mitigated where possible.

Furthermore, a number of different things can cause weak ground, whether it’s a natural or man-made occurrence. For example, the ground may already be made up of loosely-packed materials such as soil or sand. Or human activities such as drilling and excavating can loosen previously-dense ground.

Weak ground can happen over a large area or in smaller areas. Ground that is not uniformly weak will still lead to subsidence issues.

Different types of ground are susceptible to different conditions. For example, clay is prone to contracting in drought conditions, gravel can be affected by nearby construction or heavy traffic, and dirt can be softened by excess water.

Regardless of the cause, weak ground is reason to be concerned. Subsidence is the most common issue, which needs to be fixed to protect the building and its inhabitants.

Retaining walls stabilisation Bondi NSW-Permeation Grouting

Retaining walls stabilisation

Solidify loose sand and prevent it from falling in on the rear excavation, allowing a new retaining wall to be safely constructed.


Teretek® strengthens foundation, raises and re-levels a family home

Deep-lift resin injection application method aimed to maximise the ground bearing capacity beneath the home and provide a long-term solution against the risk of further subsidence.

Likely causes of ground subsidence:

Clay soil can shrink, crack and shift during hot weather, and then expand during wetter weather

After a drought, sandy or fine gravel soil is much drier, and moves more easily which can impact building footings

Trees and shrub roots can also be a factor, particularly if they’re close to property foundations

Leaking drains and water mains can wash away or soften soil, causing it to compact under foundation weight

Flood water causes the ground to saturate, ground movement and in turn cause house foundations to sink or move

Vibrations caused by heavy road traffic, machinery or near-by excavation

Local mining activity can cause ground instability and voids

Liquid, gas or mineral resources being removed from the ground affecting stability, causing voids and sink holes

Other natural causes including erosion and earthquakes

Older properties may have shallower footings or foundations

How to fix subsidence?

Mainmark specialises in soil stabilisation and ground compaction, foundation repairing, and strengthening weak ground to improve support for buildings, roads, bridges and other on-ground structures. We treat the ground beneath them to raise, re-level, and re-support these structures.

There are a number of options available to stabilise the ground, such as soil and embankment stabilisation, and void or hole-filling.

For example, Mainmark’s Terefil is the most advanced structural lightweight polymer modified cementitious-based filler. It flows into spaces to fill voids, making it a fast and effective way to stabilise the ground. Compared to typical foams, the patented foam used in Terefil has increased stability, a greater lift thickness, and can be pumped greater distances. It’s a cost-effective and environmentally-inert option that suits a range of applications such as mass fill for large voids, tanks, and abandoned mines.

Permeation grouting can create ground cohesion before excavation. It’s the longest-established and most widely-used technique, which involves filling cracks, joints, and other small defects in non-cohesive soils, sand, or other porous media. It can stabilise the ground at depths of up to 60 metres.

Alternatively, Mainmark can inject our proprietary Teretek engineered resin solution into the foundation ground under a building’s footings. The resins expand together chemically, creating pressure. That pressure lifts the building back to its correct level. Then, if there are weak layers in the ground, continuing injection at deeper levels can resolve this by compacting the ground, densifying and strengthening it to increase its bearing capacity. In some soil conditions, Mainmark can increase the bearing capacity of weak strata by as much as 500 per cent.

In cases of weak ground, Teretek engineered resin also assures sub-grade stability under existing on-ground structures including buildings, concrete floors, driveways, roads, paved airport runways, bridge approach slabs, bridge abutments and more.

Mainmark’s methods are quick, precise, don’t leave a mess, and don’t generally require occupants to vacate a building while work is being done.

Various product warranties and Building Code requirements apply (please contact us to see which apply to your region or country).

Benefits of Mainmark’s soil stabilisation methods:

Can be carried out at one or more depths; as deep as 14 metres under the surface for resin, or 60 metres for permeation grouting

Can increase the bearing capacity of weak strata under structures by up to 500 per cent

Can be used to prepare structures that need to support increased loads, e.g. when there is to be an addition to the building itself

There is little if any mess: no dust, water, or other materials to clean up

There is minimal disruption to your daily life

We don’t cause further damage to the house or landscaping

With simple jobs, residents can often stay in the home and may not even need to move furniture

Techniques are non-invasive: we don’t tear up floors or excavate ground

Our methods are fast, completed in a fraction of the time of traditional methods, so we can often complete your project in as little as one day

The products and techniques we use have zero negative impact on the environment

Mainmark ground stabilisation and strengthening methods used on homes:

For expert advice on identifying the causes of movement in a building, download a copy of ‘Foundation Maintenance and Footing Performance: A Homeowner’s Guide’ from CSIRO.